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Biochemistry Interview Questions and Answers will guide you that Bio Chemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Among the vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and large molecules (called polymers), which are composed of similar repeating subunits, Learn Biochemistry Interview Questions with Answers Guide

237 Bio Chemistry Questions and Answers:

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New  Bio Chemistry Job Interview Questions and Answers
New Bio Chemistry Job Interview Questions and Answers

1 :: How does the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex explain the reduction of the activation energy of chemical reactions?

The enzyme possibly works as a test tube within which reagents meet to form products. With the facilitation of the meeting provided by enzymes it is easier for collisions between reagents to occur and thus the activation energy of the chemical reaction is reduced. This is one of the explanatory hypotheses.

2 :: What are the main theoretical models that try to explain the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex?

There are two main models that explain the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex the lock and key model and the induced fit model.

In the lock and key model, the enzyme has a region with specific spatial conformation for the binding of the substrate. In the induced fit model, the binding of the substrate induces a change in the spatial configuration of the enzyme for the substrate to fit.

Enzyme Activity: lock and key model induced fit model

3 :: What is meant by substrates of enzymatic reactions?

Substrates are reagent molecules upon which enzymes act.

The enzyme has spatial binding sites for the attachment of its substrate. These sites are called activation centers of the enzyme. Substrates bind to theses centers forming the enzyme-substrate complex.

Enzyme Activity: enzyme-substrate complex

4 :: What are enzymes? What is the importance of enzymes for the living beings?

Enzymes are proteins that are catalysts of chemical reactions. From Chemistry, it is known that catalysts are non-consumable substances that reduce the activation energy necessary for a chemical reaction to occur.

Enzymes are highly specific to the reactions they catalyze. They are of vital importance for life because most part of chemical reaction of the cells and tissues are catalyzed by enzymes. Without enzymatic action, those reactions would not occur or would not happen in the required speed for the biological processes in which they participate.

5 :: What amount of catalyst is consumed in the reaction it catalyzes?

Catalysts are not consumed in the reactions they catalyze.

6 :: What are catalysts?

Catalysts are substances that reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction, facilitating it or making it energetically viable. The catalyst increases the speed of the chemical reaction.

7 :: What are respectively some remarkable functions of myosin, CD4, albumin, keratin, immunoglobulin, reverse transcriptase, hemoglobin, and insulin?

Myosin is a protein that associated to actin produces the muscular contraction. CD4 is a membrane protein of some lymphocytes, the cells that are infected by HIV. Albumin is an energy storage protein and an important regulator of the blood osmolarity. Keratin is a protein with structural function present in the epidermis and skin appendages of vertebrates. Immunoglobulins are the antibodies, specific proteins that attack and inactivate strange agents that enter the body. Reverse transcriptase is the enzyme responsible for the transcription of RNA and formation of DNA in the life cycle of retroviruses. Hemoglobin is the protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that participates in the metabolism of glucose.

8 :: What is the difference between essential and natural amino acids?

Essential amino acids are those that the organism is not able to synthesize and that need to be ingested by the individual. Natural amino acids are those that are produced by the organism.

There are living species that produce every amino acid they need, for example, the bacteria Escherichia coli that does not have essential amino acids. Other species, like humans, need to obtain essential amino acids from the diet. Among the twenty different known amino acids that form proteins, humans can make twelve of them and the remaining eight needs to be taken from the proteins they ingest with food.

The essential amino acids for humans are phenylalanine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophane and valine.

9 :: In sickle cell anemia, a hereditary disease, there is substitution of one amino acid by other in one of the four-polypeptide chains of hemoglobin. In this case, are all of the structural levels of the protein modified?

In sickle cell disease, there is change in the primary protein structure of one of the polypeptide chains that form hemoglobin: the amino acid glutamic acid is substituted by the amino acid valine in the ß chain. The spatial conformation of the molecule in addition is also affected and modified by this primary “mistake” and the modification creates a different (sickle) shape of the red blood cells.

Modified, sickled, red blood cells sometimes aggregate and obstruct the peripheral circulation causing tissue hypoxia and the pain crisis typical of sickle cell anemia.

10 :: Is it expected a change in the primary, in the secondary or in the tertiary structure of a protein to produce more functional consequences?

Any change of the protein structure is relevant if it alters its biological activity. Changes in the primary protein structure are more important because they are modifications in the composition of the molecule and such composition determines all other structures of the protein.

11 :: What are some factors that can lead to protein denaturizing?

Protein denaturizing can be caused by temperature variation, pH change, and changes in the concentration of surrounding solutes and by other processes. Most proteins are denatured after certain elevation of temperature or when in very acid or very basic solutions. This is one of the main reasons, why it is necessary for the organisms to keep adequate temperature and stable pH.

12 :: How can denaturizing be classified regarding its reversibility?

Protein denaturizing can be a reversible or an irreversible process, i.e., it can be possible or impossible to make the protein regain its original spatial conformation.

13 :: What is protein denaturizing? Is there any change in the primary structure when a protein is denaturized?

Secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins are spatial structures. Denaturizing is modification in any of these spatial structures that makes the protein deficient or biologically inactive.

After denaturizing, the primary protein structure is not affected.

Protein Structure Review - Image Diversity: denaturized protein

14 :: What is the quaternary structure of a protein? Do all proteins have quaternary structure?

The quaternary protein structure is the spatial conformation due to interactions among polypeptide chains that form the protein.

Only those proteins made of two or more polypeptide chains have quaternary structure. Insulin (two chains), hemoglobin (four chains), and the immunoglobulins (antibodies, four chains) are some examples of protein having quaternary structure.

Protein Structure Review - Image Diversity: protein quaternary structure

15 :: What is the tertiary structure of a protein? What are the main types of tertiary structure?

The tertiary protein structure is a spatial conformation additional to the secondary structure in which the alpha helix or the beta-sheet folds up itself. The forces that keep the tertiary structure generally are interactions between the –R groups of the amino acids and between other parts of the protein and water molecules of the solution.

The main types of tertiary structure of proteins are the globular proteins and the fibrous proteins.

Protein Structure Review - Image Diversity: protein tertiary structure

16 :: What is the difference between the alpha helix and the beta-sheet protein conformations?

Alpha helix and beta-sheet conformations are the two main types of secondary structure of a protein molecule. According to the primary protein structure, its secondary structure can be of one type or other.

In the alpha-helix structure, the polypeptide curls longitudinally by the action of hydrogen bonds forming a spiral, or helix. In the beta-sheet conformation, the protein is more distended and the hydrogen bonds form a zig-zag-shaped protein structure called B-strand. Many assembled beta-strands make a beta-sheet.

17 :: What is the secondary structure of a protein?

The secondary protein structure is generated by the manner its amino acids interact through intermolecular bond. These interactions create a spatial conformation of the polypeptide filament. The two most studied secondary conformations of proteins are the alpha helix and the beta-sheet.

Protein Structure Review - Image Diversity: protein secondary structure

18 :: What is the primary structure of a protein? What is the importance of the primary structure?

The primary protein structure is the linear sequence of amino acids that form the molecule.

The primary structure is the basis of the protein identity. Modification of only one amino acid of the primary structure creates a different protein. This different protein can be inactive or even can have other biological function.

Protein Structure Review - Image Diversity: protein primary structure

19 :: Is there any situation in which DNA is made based on a RNA template? What is the enzyme involved?

The process in which DNA is synthesized having as template a RNA chain is called reverse transcription. In cells infected by retroviruses (RNA viruses, like the AIDS or SARS viruses) reverse transcription occurs and DNA is made from information contained in the viral RNA.

Viral RNA within the host cell produces DNA with the help of an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. Based on that DNA the host cell then make viral proteins, new virus are assembled and viral replication occurs.

Nucleic Acid Review - Image Diversity: reverse transcription

20 :: Concerning their biological function what is the difference between DNA and RNA?

DNA is the source of information for RNA production (transcription) and thus for protein synthesis. DNA is still the basis of heredity due to its replication capability.

The messenger RNA is the template for protein synthesis (translation). In this process, tRNA and rRNA also participate since the first carries amino acids for the polypeptide chain formation and the second is a structural constituent of ribosomes (the organelles where proteins are made).

21 :: What are the three main types of RNA? What is meant by heterogeneous RNA?

Messenger RNA, or mRNA, transfer RNA, or tRNA, and ribosomal RNA, or rRNA, are the three main types of RNA.

The newly formed RNA molecule, a precursor of mRNA, is called heterogeneous RNA (hnRNA). The heterogeneous RNA bears portions called introns and portions called exons. The hnRNA is processed in many chemical steps, introns are removed, and mRNA is created formed only of exons, the biologically active nucleotide sequences.

22 :: What are similarities and differences between the transcription process and the replication processes?

A DNA polynucleotide chain serves as template in replication (DNA duplication) as well in transcription (RNA formation). In both processes, the pairing of the two-polynucleotide chains of the original DNA molecule is broken by the breaking of hydrogen bonds for the chains to be exposed as templates. The reaction is catalyzed by specific enzymes in transcription and in replication.

In replication, the enzyme DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of a new polynucleotide chain using free nucleotides in solution and putting them in the new chain according to the DNA template exposed and to the rule A-T, C-G. In transcription, the enzyme RNApolymerase makes a new polynucletide chain according to the DNA template exposed obeying, however, the rule A-U, C-G.

In replication, the original template DNA chain is kept bound by hydrogen bonds to the newly formed DNA chain and a new DNA molecule is then created. In transcription the association between the template DNA chain and the newly formed RNA is undid and RNA constituted of only one polynucleotide chain is liberated.

23 :: How the production of RNA called? What is the enzyme that catalyzes the process?

The making of RNA from information contained in DNA is called transcription. The enzyme that catalyzes the process is the RNA polymerase.

24 :: Does RNA molecule have two polynucleotide chains likewise DNA?

Only DNA has two polynucleotide chains. RNA is formed just by one polynucleotide chain.

Nucleic Acid Review - Image Diversity: RNA molecule

25 :: Where can RNA are found within cells?

In the eukaryote cell nucleus, RNA can be found dispersed in the nuclear fluid, along with DNA, and as the main constituent of the nucleolus. In cytosol (in eukaryotes or in bacteria) RNA molecules can be found free, as structural constituent of ribosomes (organelles specialized in protein synthesis) or even associated to them in the process of making proteins. Mitochondria and chloroplasts also have their own DNA and RNA.
Bio Chemistry Interview Questions and Answers
237 Bio Chemistry Interview Questions and Answers