Atmosphere Interview Preparation Guide Download PDF
Atmosphere Interview Questions and Answers will guide us now that Atmosphere is is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity is high and the atmosphere\'s temperature is low. So learn about the Atmosphere with the help of this Atmosphere related Interview Questions with Answers guide
38 Atmosphere Questions and Answers:
Ozone is found primarily in two regions of the atmosphere. About 10% of atmospheric ozone is in the troposphere, the region closest to Earth (from the surface to about 10-16 kilometers (6-10 miles)). The remaining ozone (about 90%) resides in the stratosphere between the top of the troposphere and about 50 kilometers (31 miles) altitude.
Ozone is formed throughout the atmosphere in multistep chemical processes that require sunlight. In the stratosphere, the process begins with an oxygen molecule being broken apart by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. In the lower atmosphere (troposphere), ozone is formed in a different set of chemical reactions involving hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing gases.
Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs some of the Sun's biologically harmful ultraviolet radiation. Because of this beneficial role, stratospheric ozone is considered good ozone. In contrast, excess ozone at Earth's surface that is formed from pollutants is considered bad ozone because it can be harmful to humans, plants and animals. The ozone that occurs naturally near the surface and in the lower atmosphere is also beneficial because ozone helps remove pollutants from the atmosphere.
No, the total amount of ozone above the surface of Earth varies with location on time scales that range from daily to seasonal and longer. The variations are caused by stratospheric winds and the chemical production and destruction of ozone. Total ozone is generally lowest at the equator and highest near the poles because of the seasonal wind patterns in the stratosphere.
The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is measured by instruments on the ground and carried aloft on balloons, aircraft and satellites. Some measurements involve drawing air into an instrument that contains a system for detecting ozone. Other measurements are based on ozone's unique absorption of light in the atmosphere. In that case, sunlight or laser light is carefully measured after passing through a portion of the atmosphere containing ozone.
The initial step in the depletion of stratospheric ozone by human activities is the emission, at Earth's surface, of ozone-depleting gases containing chlorine and bromine. Most of these gases accumulate in the lower atmosphere because they are nonreactive and do not dissolve readily in rain or snow. Eventually, these emitted source gases are transported to the stratosphere, where they are converted to more reactive gases containing chlorine and bromine. These more reactive gases then participate in reactions that destroy ozone. Finally, when air returns to the lower atmosphere, these reactive chlorine and bromine gases are removed from Earth's atmosphere by rain and snow.
Certain industrial processes and consumer products result in the emission of halogen source gases to the atmosphere. These gases bring chlorine and bromine to the stratosphere, which cause depletion of the ozone layer. For example, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), once used in almost all refrigeration and air conditioning systems, eventually reach the stratosphere, where they are broken apart to release ozone-depleting chlorine atoms. Other examples of human-produced ozone-depleting gases are the halons, which are used in fire extinguishers and contain ozone-depleting bromine atoms. The production and consumption of all principal halogen source gases by human activities are regulated worldwide under the Montreal Protocol.
Emissions from human activities and natural processes include large sources of chlorine- and bromine-containing gases that eventually reach the stratosphere. When exposed to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, these halogen source gases are converted to more reactive gases also containing chlorine and bromine. Important examples of the reactive gases that destroy stratospheric ozone are chlorine monoxide (ClO) and bromine monoxide (BrO). These reactive gases participate in "catalytic" reaction cycles that efficiently destroy ozone. Volcanoes can emit some chlorine-containing gases but these gases are ones that readily dissolve in rainwater and ice and are usually washed out of the atmosphere before they can reach the stratosphere.
Reactive gases containing chlorine and bromine destroy stratospheric ozone in "catalytic" cycles made up of two or more separate reactions. As a result, a single chlorine or bromine atom can destroy many hundreds of ozone molecules before it reacts with another gas, breaking the cycle. In this way, a small amount of reactive chlorine or bromine has a large impact on the ozone layer. Certain ozone destruction reactions become most effective in polar regions because the reactive gas chlorine monoxide reaches very high levels there in the late winter/early spring season.
10 :: Why ozone hole has appeared over Antarctica when ozone-depleting gases are present throughout the stratosphere?
Ozone-depleting gases are present throughout the stratospheric ozone layer because they are transported great distances by atmospheric air motions. The severe depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer known as the ozone hole occurs because of the special weather conditions that exist there and nowhere else on the globe. The very low temperatures of the Antarctic stratosphere create ice clouds called polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Special reactions that occur on PSCs and the relative isolation of polar stratospheric air allow chlorine and bromine reactions to produce the ozone hole in Antarctic springtime