Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Question:
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Why does IBGP require a full mesh?

Answer:

BGP uses the AS_PATH attribute for loop detection. If a router sees its own AS number in a BGP advertisement, the advertisement is dropped. IBGP routers have the same AS number so the AS number cannot be used for loop detection. IBGP neighbors will not advertise prefixes learned from one IBGP neighbor to another IBGP neighbor; therefore, a full mesh is required.

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Name two methods for reducing the number of IBGP connections.What is the major difference between BGP and IGP route summarization?